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Analysis of 1930’s and 1940’s Science Fiction Themes and Mythical Archetypes in the Deconstruction of David Icke’s Reptoid Humanoid Hypothesis



“I suppose everything in existence takes its colour from the average hue of our surroundings.”

H.G. Wells, The Island of Doctor Moreau



One of the main leitmotifs of Carl J. Jung’s The Undiscovered Self is the inevitable disorientation of a person in the labyrinth of self-identification. Throughout his essays, Jung insists that endowing with human qualities of creatures not related to the branch of human evolution with the goal of “detached” comparison will liberate from the burden of existential maze and will offer an escapist catharsis of enduring self-knowledge, “Man is an enigma to himself...The possibility of comparison and hence of self-knowledge would arise only if he could establish relations with quasi-human mammals inhabiting other stars (Jung, p.25). Although any statement about self-knowledge is highly subjective, Jung’s ideas of anthropomorphism and bifurcation of reality into “us” and “them” help to conceptualize the phenomenon of popularity of the bulk of conspiracy theories today. Every theory from the New World Order, Freemasonry and Illuminati to 9/11, Biden and Ukraine, and COVID-19 as the Mark of the Beast reveal the same underlying quest for certitude and offers the same ontological security as a blissful harbor at the end of a grueling marathon of understanding oneself and one's role in an endlessly fragmented, at times absurd, and unstable world.

Conspiracy theories hold pseudoscientific façade which can be thoroughly deconstructed, analyzed, and prevented from mass distribution through academic peer review; yet, such profesional conspiracy theorists like David Icke avoid scientific scrutinization of the content quality through self-publication which has already translated into $10 million net worth from loyal audience, global popularity, translation into 11 languages, and persona non grata status on all social media platforms. Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis is one of the top most popular contemporary conspiracies functioning as a unique consolidation of all conspiracy theories with unlimited explanatory power. Apparent financial motifs embedded in pseudoscientific framework of this hypothesis dictate the need to critically examine, deconstruct, and historicize this conspiracy theory with the goal of illuminating potentially overlooked thematic, semantic, and semiotic missing links within all-accounting and all-inclusive Icke’s panacea for existential paralysis. Although the Reptilian Hypothesis was clearly informed by the alien craze and American discourses of political mistrust and paranoia shaped during the Cold War, as suggested by such critics as Tyson E. Lewis and Richard Kahn, it also borrows from themes and tropes that had appeared extensively in the earlier history of science fiction, especially during the 1930s and 1940s. Such texts as 1936 satirical science fiction novel by Karel Čapek War with the Newts and 1941 science fiction novelette Microcosmic God by Theodore Sturgeon epitomize the thematic legacy of H.G. Wells of enriching science fiction with political/ecological allegories and philosophical motifs as well as integration of a longer genealogy of mythical and Biblical archetypes which are easily identifiable within David Icke’s 1998 The Biggest Secret and 2001 The Children of Matrix. Moreover, the political dimensions of the Reptilian Hypothesis reflect concerns about the development of totalitarianism that have been examined within the genre of science fiction from its earliest days.

The deconstruction of conspiracy theories is increasingly resonating with academia as it provides a platform for the study of the anatomy of logical inconsistencies, neuro-linguistic programming, and the general trajectory of global mass culture. Since the 9/11 infamous attack, 2020 became the pinnacle of the number of publications on the topic of analyzing conspiracies as well as new “upgraded” versions of conspiracy theories revolving around a new inspirational goddess - COVID-19 (2020 Number Games: 9/11 to Coronavirus by Zachary Hubbard is one of many emerging competitors to David Icke in the field of professional literary conspiracism). One of the common themes analyzed by such works as Conspiracy Theories and the People Who Believe in Them by professor at the University of Miami's Political Science department, Joseph Uscinski, and The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories by Dr. Jan-Willem Van Prooijen, professor at the department of Applied Psychology of VU Amsterdam, is the influence of so-called “contactee” literature which sprang up following an alleged crash of a UFO craft in Roswell, New Mexico in 1947. As Tyson Lewis and Richard Khan argue in their collective analysis “The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs”, Icke’s theory is part of a larger alien conspiracy culture. Lewis and Khan further assert that conspiratorial framework was embedded in the contactee literature because, due to the historical closeness of the UFO crash with the beginning of the Cold War, contactee literature obtained common metaphorical cultural reading of this invasion as the threat of Communist invasion. By the 1970s, with the Watergate Scandal and Vietnam War, the public became paranoid that governments have their secret interests, and aliens in the contactee literature proportionately reflected secrecy and harmful intentions of the government. Numerous 1980’s and 1990's television shows such as Star Trek, Outer Limits, and The Twilight Zone, and films such as Star Wars, Alien, and Close Encounters of the Third Kind all helped “to cement the connection between aliens, politics, and entertainment in the popular imagination of the 1960’s and 1970’s, while the 1980’s continued the alien craze with the creation of a new set of narratives that began to combine alien themes with conspiratorial ideas” (Tyson, Khan, p. 46). Even though all academic attempts to deconstruct the genealogy of David Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis (as well as any conspiracy theory involving extraterrestrial creatures as the puppet masters of humanity) inevitably lead researchers to the alien craze of the 1950’s-1990’s in the popular imagination, Icke’s Reptilian Hypothesis was clearly informed by science fiction themes and allegorical techniques which are evident in satirical science fiction novels and novelettes as early as the 1930s and 1940s.


Conspiracy Theory as a Genre Mutation of Science Fiction Through the Lens of Historical Genre Theory

The influence of the 1950’s-1990’s US alien craze and Cold War-era paranoia motifs should not be downplayed in the analysis of David Icke’s The Biggest Secret and The Children of Matrix; yet, the significance of the Cold-War-inflected themes around the alien conspiracies does not explain the presence of almost identical plotlines found in the 1930’s and 1940’s science fiction texts before the alleged UFO crash. The theme of serpent/lizard/snake-looking creatures with enormous intellectual abilities who were either artificially created by scientists or evolved from amphibians, Salamandroideas, and then surpassed and turned mankind into a secondary animal kingdom intended to be slaves of reptilians was, in fact, already fully developed earlier in the history of science fiction. 1936 satirical science fiction novel War With the Newts by Czech author Karel Čapek and 1941 science fiction novelette Microcosmic God by Theodore Sturgeon can be read as some of the earliest progenitors of Icke’s hypothesis that humans are in fact the slave race of reptilian aliens called Annunaki. However, in the case of Čapek’s satirical sf novel, the antagonistic role of Annunaki was presented in the form of Newts, and Sturgeon’s prototypical representation of Annunaki were reptilian/snake-looking creatures called Neoterics.

The longer history of the central reptilian plotline of Icke must be taken into account to understand some of the structures of meaning and signifying elements that constitute the framework of the Reptilian Hypothesis. Although Lewis and Khan mentioned that Reptoid Hypothesis had “pop-cultural sci-fi appeal”, they did not progress in this line of analysis, focusing instead on the utopian and dystopian representational motifs of Reptoid Hypothesis (Tyson, Khan, p. 56). It seems counterintuitive to suggest that conspiracy theories can be judged using the same merits as science fiction; yet, the genre mutation is apparently evident in the thematic transformation from Čapek’s and Sturgeon’s science fiction texts to David Icke’s best-selling conspiracy theory in the world. How can this genre mutation be rationalized?

All genres and artistic/intellectual movements are geared toward a mini revolution, a cut in the historical processes. In the XX century, Futurism breaks with Symbolism; Vorticism breaks with Futurism; Dadaism breaks with everything that came before; Surrealism breaks with Dadaism and so the kaleidoscope of mutation of genres and intellectual movements continues to this day. Despite the prominent component of revolutionary rupture, genres mutate, evolve, shape each other, intertwine, and incestually give birth to new, unique genres which, yet, have certain elements of their progenitors. Therefore, the mutation of the genre of Science Fiction and its forming place in the genealogy of modern conspiracy theories, particularly, Reptilian Humanoid Hypothesis is not counterintuitive. This can be further proved through the lens of the extended historical genre theory proposed by John Rieder. In “On Defining SF, or Not: Genre Theory, SF, and History”, John Rieder explains that, unlike formal general theory, historical genre theory undermines any fixed definition of science fiction. He begins with a paradigm shift that happened in genre theory between 1984 and 1991 initiated by Rick Altman’s essay “A Semantic/Syntactic Approach to Film Genre” and Ralph Cohen and their assertion that the act of “definition” can not ever be adequate to the notion of genre as historical process. Further, Rieder incorporates quotes from Paul Kincaid’s 2003 essay “On the Origin of Genre”, Damon Knight’s interviews, Mark Bould and Sherryl Vint “There is No Such Thing as Science Fiction” to highlight his argument that genres, in general, are fluid and tenuous and science fiction is not an exception. Historical genre theory is different from the formal genre theory (that asserts that similar situations generate typified responses called genres), but looks at genres as historical processes. According to this approach, definitions and classifications may be useful points of departure for critical and rhetorical analysis, but, historical genre theory comprehends what science fiction meant and currently means through historical and comparative narrative rather than formal description.

In addition, John Rieder makes five propositions about sf, each of which could also be re-formulated as a thesis about genre in order to summarize the current paradigm of genre theory. “The five propositions are: 1) science fiction is historical and mutable; 2) science fiction has no essence, no single unifying characteristic, and no point of origin; 3) science fiction is not a set of texts, but rather a way of using texts and of drawing relationships among them; 4) science fiction’s identity is a differentially articulated position in an historical and mutable field of genres; 5) attribution of the identity of science fiction to a text constitutes an active intervention in its distribution and reception” (Rieder, p. 193) One of the goals of this project is to illustrate Rieder’s five propositions about science fiction to demonstrate fluidity and mutability of science fiction as a genre as well as to show how Reptoid Hypothesis echoes H.G. Wells’ thematic bifurcation of science fiction into political/ecological allegory and philosophical tract on human nature on the example of Microcosmic God and The War With the Newts against the backdrop of H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Island of Doctor Moreau.

When John Rieder claims that science fiction is mutable and historical, he means that genres are richer and more complex within parameters that are social and historical, rather than literary. In other words, texts should use history to read texts and texts to read history. Difficulty of defining science fiction is, therefore, explained by the second proposition that science fiction has no single unifying characteristic and no point of origin. According to historical genre theory, then, genres can be correlated based on similar “time and place” circumstances. This theory expands the boundaries of the science fiction genre and hints that science fiction may merge with the most unusual genres of the same historical period and continue to be called science fiction. One parallel genre that reached the zenith of popularity in the XX century along with science fiction (both golden age and new wave) was conspiracy fiction. The Reptoid Hypothesis might, then, be viewed as the product of such genre symbios.


Thematic Borrowing in Reptoid Hypothesis: Symbiosis of Conspiracy Fiction and Science Fiction in Microcosmic God



1941 science fiction novelette Microcosmic God by Theodore Sturgeon is constructed in the best traditions of conspiracy fiction, yet, belongs to the golden age of science fiction. Microcosmic God tells a story remarkably similar to David Icke's first five chapters of The Biggest Secret - civilizational success is controlled by one sociopathic scientist who creates reptilian-looking intellectually advanced race on the remote island, while America’s economy and, at the same time, the whole world’s economy, is in the hands of a greedy banker with megalomania who, in turn, is dependant on the “brains” of the sociopathic scientist from the remote island. In the case of Icke, the sociopathic scientist on the remote island is the head of an extraterrestrial lizard-looking race called Annunaki from a remote planet called Nibiru and the “greedy banker” is “Babylonian Brotherhood”, or “Illuminati” who control the world's economy and media through secret masonic connections between world politicians. Remarkably, Icke even calls the head of Annunaki “chief scientist”, “two people involved in the creation of the slave race were the chief scientist called Enki” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.28).

There are two textual episodes within Microcosmic God that directly imitate foundational themes from conspiracy fiction. The first one mentions the easily-manipulated American Government by secret forces, “All he [secret force] wants is your agreement to carry out his [secret force] orders; to appoint the [secret force] cabinet members he chooses, to throw your influence in any way he [secret force] dictates. The public-Congress-anyone else-need never know anything about it” (Sturgeon, p.107) The second episode portrays media as the medium of spreading and perpetuating secret control over the naive and unaware population: “There Is a commercial radio program on Station RPRS. You will cause the announcer, after his station identification, to say ‘’Agreed” (Sturgeon, p.107). Whie Theodore Sturgeon presents such matters as hypothetical and inherently fictional narratives, David Icke converts the same two classic themes of conspiracy fiction into the absolute truth. In the first five chapters of The Biggest Secret and the first ten chapters of The Children of Matrix, Icke voices claims that American Government as well as any government of any country are easily-manipulated by the the will of the secret extraterrestrial lizards, “Aryan lizards have created a secret society known as the Freemasons or Illuminati. The Illuminati are the grand historical puppet masters, presiding over all human activities through indirect channels of control (media, Internet) (Tyson, Khan, p. 52); “The British House of Windsor is one of them, so are the Rothschilds, the European royalty and aristocracy, the Rockefellers, and he rest of the so-called Eastern Establishment of the United States which produces the American Presidents” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.19). Potentially due to the fact that in 1998, when Icke wrote and self-published his text, Internet already existed, and the theme of “digital mind control”, or Internet, was as powerful as the theme of the radio in 1940’s Sturgeon’s novelette, “In the XXI century the reptoids have gone digital. inventing and deploying new information technologies that will further suppress the truth, expand the scope of surveillance, and restrict individual freedoms… illuminati are very interested in mind control. The media and the Internet are two powerful tools that they have developed to achieve mind control over the general populace” (Tyson, Khan, p. 53). These two passages from Sturgeon and Icke demonstrate crucial aspects of not only the presence of conspiracy fiction fundamental themes within science fiction, but also reveal what author of a psychological study “What Drives Conspiratorial Beliefs?”, Uscinski, calls “psychological triggers of conspiratorial predisposition” or “informational cues”. Lowering levels of trust in the government and depicting media as inherently corrupt are two informational cues that activate psychological conspiratorial predisposition.

All existing conspiracy theories today are constructed on these two fundamental informational cues which are apparent in any conspiracy fiction novel with various layers of semantic complexities. For instance, boh The Ministry of Fear by Graham Green published in 1943 and Nightmare Town by Dashiell Hammett published in 1948 explore the same themes but without the scientifically grandiose setting presented in Microcosmic God. In other words, according to Rieder’s historical genre theory and study by Uscinski, symbiosis of science fiction and conspiracy fiction in Microcosmic God by Theodore Sturgeon exploits semantic possibilities of the language to potentially construct a new genre, possibly, a genesis of the new Reptoid Humanoid Hypothesis. Further research into the topic of symbiosis of sf and cf, conducted by Lewis, Tyson, and Richard Kahn in their collective work, “The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs in David Icke's Alien Conspiracy Theory” proves that symbiosis of conspiracy fiction, science fiction, and “alien craze” of the XX century mutated into David Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis. Reptoid Hypothesis, or an idea that alien lizards conspiratorially control the earth is “quintessentially dystopian literature” which voices accumulated scepticism and distrust in the government and capitalism. (Kahn, p.50) According to their research, the greatest manifestation of the “intercourse” of science fiction and conspiracy fiction, or the moment that proves Rieder’s proposition that science fiction is mutable and science fiction’s identity is a differentially articulated position in an historical and mutable field of genres is V (1983 miniseries) written and directed by Kenneth Johnson and 1985 “dark” science fiction novella “Enemy Mine” written by Barry B. Longyear. In “Enemy Mine”, science fiction, conspiracy fiction, and rudiments of Reptoid Hypothesis become one and indivisible whole, while serpents begin to be recognized in mass culture as intellectually-advanced creatures rather than biblical symbol of evil. Microcosmic God proves that the holy trinity of sf, cf, and advanced reptile civilization rhetoric appears earlier than mid 80’s. Neoterics, or the artificially created civilization in Microcosmic God are “snake-skinned” quadrupeds that appear much earlier, originally published in 1941 and then received Nebula Award in 1970 coinciding with the “zenith” of conspiracy fiction in the U.S.


Echoes of the Legacy of H.G. Wells' Thematic Bifurcation of Science Fiction in David' Icke's Reptoid Hypothesis - Political and Ecological Dimensions

One of the characterizing attributes of Reptoid Hypothesis is its political commentary. As Tyson Lewis and Richard Khan observed in their collective analysis of dystopian motifs in Reptoid Hypothesis, “much of Icke’s work provides historical and political critique that is at once trenchant political analysis mixed with what reads like an over-the-top satire in the tradition of Jonathan Swift (Tyson, Khan, p. 52). Indeed, Reptoid Hypothesis seems to have an unlimited explanatory potential to rationalize everything on the global political arena from describing how allien reptiles control Eastern Establishment of the United States which produces the American Presidents with “reptilian agenda” to Hitler as one of the illegitimate sons of Rothschild who was financed by Illuminati to initiate Holocaust and, thus, feed, Annunaki with “negative” energy of suffering, pain, and deprivation. Both The Biggest Secret and The Children of Matrix are inherently political texts which integrate science fiction themes, plotlines, and tropes. The following section will attempt to illuminate the political and ecological dimensions within The War with the Newts, specifically, various techniques of political allegories inserted into science fiction settings which were consciously or unconsciously absorbed by Reptoid Hypothesis.

The broad history of science fiction has continued to animate and engage with political questions. The nature of science fiction as a generic form uses scientific and technological speculation to comment, critique, or reflect upon current conditions, which often means that science fiction is inherently a political genre. As Darko Suvin wrote in “Not Only but Also: Reflections of Cognition and Ideology in Science Fiction and SF Criticism”, science fiction “situates itself within this general alternative of liberation vs. bodage, self-management vs. class alienation...where the novelty is historically determine” (Suvin, pp.168-169). Thus, the understanding of SF - constituted by history and evaluated in history - is doubly impossible without a sense of history and its possibilities. In other words, literary production of science fiction can not be divorced from social meanings and sociopolitical judgements. H.G. Wells might be called one of the founding fathers of integrating political subtext into science fiction through the prism of scientific discoveries/scientific actions and their potential (negative) impacts on the future of humanity. Similarly to Icke’s hypothesis, War of the Worlds describes the invasion of aliens (Martians) on Earth and is one of the first descriptions of such a conflict in world literature. Many contemporary readers viewed Well’s novel as an extended political allegory, equating Martians’ ambitions to take over the world with changes in world geopolitics at the beginning of XX century, the unification and militarization of Germany, and severe critique of British colonialism. In the opening of the novel, Wells directly equates cruelty of the Martians with British cruelty towards Tasmanians and natural world,

“And before we judge of them too harshly we must remember what

ruthless and utter destruction our own species has wrought, not only

upon animals...but upon its inferior races. The Tasmanians, in spite

of the human likeness, were entirely swept out of existence in a war extermination waged by European immigrants, in the space of fifty

years. Are we such apostles of mercy as to complain if the Martians

warred in the same spirit?” (Wells, War of the Worlds, p.4)

In the meantime, War of the Worlds became a time bomb under the imperial consciousness of the British. For it does not matter at all who occupies London: the Martians or the Kaiser's troops. Remarkably, the first chapter of Icke’s The Biggest Secret is titled “The Martians have landed?” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.18). It should also be noted that at the end of the XIX century, for the first time in history, people began to notice the consequences of a destructive effect on the biosphere and ecology: by 1898, the population of the American bison was almost completely exterminated by humans. This ecological and biospheric commentary serves as the dystopian predictions about the future of mankind: just like the Martians, humans will be forced to leave their planet as it is not fit for life, “Its air is much more attenuated than ours, its oceans have shrunk until they cover but a third of its surface...that last stage of exhaustion, which to us is still incredibly remote, has become a present-day problem for the inhabitants of Mars” (Wells, The War of the Worlds, p.4) These sentiments are also reflected in the novel and translated into Icke’s idea that Annunaki needed our natural resources because they lacked their own on their planet of Nibiru. As Icke explains in The Biggest Secret, “Annunaki came to the Earth an estimated 450,000 years ago to mine gold in what is now Africa...The gold mined by the Annunaki was shipped back to their home planet from base in the Middle East...there was a rebellion by the miners and the Annunaki royal elite decided to create a new slave race to do the work” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 26) Although Icke’s hypothesis is not a political and ecological allegory per se, yet it uses the same techniques of attributing human characteristics of destruction to alien entities as a way of demonstrating global political trajectory.

Following Well’s traditions, both War With the Newts and Microcosmic God incorporate geopolitical and ecological allegory into their narratives. While War With the Newts introduces us to the technique of satirical “aesopian language” as the rhetorical mode of incorporating political allegory into science fiction setting, Microcosmic God reveals the theme of secret intentions behind political operations. In fact, Karl Čapek’s title War with the Newts is a direct allusion to H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds. Peter Swirski, in his essay "Karel Čapek and the Politics of Memory", claims that the literary conversation with Wells stretches from Čapek’s early stories down to War with the Newts, “With the Englishman openly cited in the novel as an authority on utopias/dystopias, with the menace of heat rays bewailed in a hysterical English headline, with familiar scenes of invasion-spawned anarchy, The War of the Worlds is never far from the attentive reader’s mind” (Swirski, p.11). The plot opens with the discovery of a sapient lizard species who soon become efficient pearl divers. The operation expands, the Newts are shipped around the world, and soon they capture the attention of G. H. Bondy, captain of world industry, who creates the Salamander Syndicate, paving the way for the industrial, mass-scale use of this intelligent and by now articulate species. “Hunted, killed, enslaved, exhibited in circuses, bred in captivity, tortured, abused, preyed upon, and trained for war, they reenact Capek's condensed version of an everyday in the life of our civilization” (Swirski, p.6). As their exploitation intensifies according to the iron logic of twentieth-century slash-and-burn capitalism, the Newts become essential grease for the machinery of global trade and progress. Yet, eventually, they unite and outnumber the human population. They do not rebel against the Salamander Syndicate but, instead, develop a conspiracy against human race, accumulate enough weapons, iron, chemicals, and tools to destroy human population as the unnecessary appendages to continents. They flood continent after continent by underground explosions to expand the water space for the rapidly growing population of salamanders, leaving a small population of people only as slaves of salamanders with the goal of delivering natural resources that newts cannot get under water.

War with the Newts is an all-encompassing allegory aimed to uncover geopolitical and social “diseases” of the late 1930’s: nationalism, capitalism, expansionism, the rise of German fascism, bolshevism, communism, colonialism, imperialism, militarism, wasteful use of natural resources, and racism, “In the process, with prognostic audacity that proved all too accurate, War with the Newts gives us a terrifying foretaste--or for us, descendants of the Second World War, a sickening aftertaste--of Nazism” (Swirski, p.6). In “Proper Words in Proper Places: The Challenge of Čapek's ‘War with the Newts.’”, Elizabeth Maslen argues that the main rhetorical trope that Čapek uses to deliver his pessimistic (and, alas, accurate) consequences of the rise of Nazism in Germany and Europe's ill-bred policy of appeasement to his audience was through the usage of Aesopian language, or “teasingly screened political “identifications” (Maslen, p.88). Merriam Webster dictionary defines Aesopian language as the cryptic or ambiguous language characterized by the use of anthropomorphism to uncover political subtext and human follies which authors used in subversive material, often to avoid censorship. This use originated in Russia with a technical term ezopovski, the Russian version of the term used extensively by sovietologists. In the 20th century, Aesopian - which had previously meant simply "characteristic of Aesop or his fables" - took on an extended political meaning and was borrowed by many writers to write on the most pressing political issues. Today, Aesopian language occasionally means "having hidden meaning" without any implications of subversive political meaning or avoidance of censorship. Maslen further argues that Čapek was influenced by Saltykov-Schedrin, 19th-century Russian satirist who “invented” aesopian language with strong political subtext, “Lenin used Aesopian language under the Tsars: Zamyatin used it first under the Tsars and later under the Bolsheviks” (Maslen, p.88). In 1936, when War with the Newts was written and published, this technique was widely used “under totalitarian regimes when censorship is particularly strict” (Maslen, p.88). The Chief Salamander who, eventually, wipes out humanity “in stages'' is reminiscent of Adolf Hitler, “At the end of the book Chief Salamander turns out to be a man, Andreas Schultze. Like Hitler, he is an ex-First World War NCO who whips the Newts into conquistadorial frenzy while being showered by world powers with arms, munitions, and credit” (Swirski, p.7). In fact, Aesopian language and its usage of the newts to embody rising fascism in Germany was one of the reasons why Swedish committee rejected Čapek's novel for the reasons of “political incorrectness”even though War With the Newts was nominated and highly praised by critics.

Whether consciously or unconsciously, David Icke absorbed the surface appearance of the animal fable embedded in Aesopian language in both The Biggest Secret and The Children of the Matrix, particularly, in his attempts to explain horrific deeds of Nazi Germany and ratiolalize popularity of Hitler through calling him a reptilian extraterrestrial creature supported by far more intelligent creature from a remote planet. In fact, attempts of rationalizing the rise of Hitler and his party in Germany as well as his maniac idea of racial supremacy is one the focal points of Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis. He dedicates an entire chapter to Hitler in both The Biggest Secret and The Children of Matrix analyzing German obscurantism of the late 1930’ in more than 200 pages, “So many of the strands of history related in this book can be found in the beliefs of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis...the Nazi party was the creation of a network of secret societies which had access to the underground stream of knowledge” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 846). However, unlike Čapek, who used Chief Salamander as an allegorical anthropomorphic representation of Hitler, Icke directly calls him a lizard carrying a secret “bloodline”, “The Rotschilds and the Illuminati produce many offspring out of wedlock in their secret breeding programmes and these children are brought up under other names with other parents...Hitler too would have produced unofficial children to maintain his strand of reptilian bloodline and there will obviously be people of his bloodline alive today” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 847). Even more interesting is the description of Icke’s “Super hybrids”, or extraterrestrial slave masters, hybrid of Annunaki and another reptilian alien race called “Nordics” because of their blond hair and blue eyes. These reptilians are none other than the Aryans, “top-down control, emotionless, ‘cold-blooded attitudes”, an obsession with ritualistic behavior” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 36). Even in this description, we see the reflection of Čapek's parallels with Nazi Germany, satirically described as the Northern Newt or “Baltic” Newts using Aesopian language. Capek’s Newts are branded with the generic name Andrias Scheuchzeri, derived from the false premise of the scientist Scheuchzer, who thought a Newt skeleton was protoman. (Maslen, p.90). Thanks to Scheuchzer’s Germanic origin, that fallacious name is enough to initiate the cult of the Nordic Newt as the original master-race,

“Baltic German scientist, Dr. Hans Thuring, found that the

Baltic Newt had certain distinctive physical features - it was

somewhat lighter in colour, it walked on two legs, and its carnial

index indicated a skull that was longer and narrower than other

newts. This variety was given the name Northern Newt or Noble

Newt (Andrias Scheuchzeri var. nobilis erecta Thuring...The German

press took this newt as its own and enthusiastically stressed that it

was because of its German environment that this newt developed into

a different and superior sub-species, indisputably above the level

of any other salamander. Journalists wrote with contempt of the

degenerate newt of the Mediterranean...savage newts of the tropics

and of the inferior, barbaric, and bestial newts of other nations”

(Čapek, p. 225)

Unfortunately, Čapek’s contemporaries could not fully appreciate the depth of his allegorical political analysis of the situation in Germany, which prophetically predicted the annexation of Polish lands three years before the real annexation by German troops in 1939. Aesopian language has the capacity for being either overlooked or misinterpreted, “the use of Aesopian language risks a reader’s blindness and/or misinterpretation” (Maslen, p.90). Peter Swriski calls this effect “deaf ears”, “With Hitler winning the political and military game against the rest of Europe, it became clear that Capek’s warnings had fallen on deaf ears” (Swirski, p.4). As Elizabeth Maslen further explains, “it [Aesopian language] relies on its readership’s familiarity with what is referred to as extratextuality, with the complication that it must inform some while keeping others (such as the censors) in the dark (Maslen, p.88). Another peculiar characteristic of the Aesopian language which might explain its echoes in David Icke’ Reptoid Hypothesis is the fact that “western readers have little skill in recognizing Aesopian language” because of the lack of experience of living under totalitarian regimes and censorship. (Maslen, p.91) David Ickes was born and spent most of his “professional conspiracist'' career in England, a country which protects the freedom of expression under the common law and still honors lessons of the freedom of speech expressed in polemical tract by Milton in Areopagitica. He simply was not “formed” in the environment of censorship and repressions which trains to interpret any text: be it a work of fiction, journalism, or political debates, as having inherently allegorical and never literal nature. Maslen’s analysis calls this phenomenon a “problem of what is transferable from cultures well-versed in official and unofficial censorship to readers who are not so highly sensitized” (Maslen, p.91). It is possible, then, to hypothesize that Icke’s stylistically eclectic Reptoid Hypothesis simply misterpreted and overlooked the allegorical nature of reptilians as the anthropomorphic and allegorical reflections of geopolitical and ecological problems.

Similarly to Well’s groundbreaking ecological allegory equating land destruction caused by the Martians with human destruction of flora and fauna, War With the Newts revolves around the destruction of continents as a result of human ventality, "Everyone did it. The different countries did it, finance did it. They all wanted to make the most out of those Newts. They all wanted to make money out of them. We used to sell them arms, and what not. We are all responsible for it" (Capek, p.273). This theme of personal and collective responsibility for the mass ecological destruction is also present in David Icke’s hypothesis. He blames lack of unity among people and hypocrisy (cultivated by Annunaki, of course) for ecological problems, “The environment is being used as an excuse to steal more and more land” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 670); “All the major global environmental reports are saying there is an environmental crisis and something must be done, have been funded and fronted by the very people who are dismantling the planet’s ecology and killing the wildlife” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 665). ”Both Icke and Čapek arrive to the same course of actions related to resolving pressing ecological problems - resisting ecopolitical neutrality and acknowledging responsibility for the wellbeing of each other and future generations. In Chapter “Mr. Povondra Blames Himself” of The War With the Newts, Čapek provides criticism of neutrality and conscious non-involvement in the destruction of the Earth by salamanders and the illusion that flooding of the land in neighboring countries won’t affect them, “The newts won’t get here, will be alright. And Switzerland too, they’ll be alright too. It’s because we haven’t got any coastline, see big advantage that is. If your country borders on the sea, that’s when you’re in trouble” (Čapek’, p. 268). Nevertheless, Čapek ends his novel with a bitter repentance of one of the characters for his own indifference to the fate of the Earth after the realization of the inevitability of the death of his own grandchildren being flooded by the news, “It’s the end of the world. It’s going to be all sea even here, even here now that the newts are here. And it’s all my fault. ‘All I want,’ the old man sighed, ‘is for these children to forgive me’” (Čapek, p.274). Icke ends The Biggest Secret with a chapter titled “Breaking the Spell” in which he urges his readers to unite against reptiles in their spiritual awakening of the responsibility for the quality of their life, “positive vibrations” of the Earth, and each other, “but just as importantly we need to set each other free...” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.826).

The War With the Newts is chosen for this project to reveal how the Reptoid Hypothesis could have been informed by the techniques of political and ecological allegories found in the satirical science fiction novels of the late 1930s which were in turn, arguably, initiated by H.G. Wells at the end of the 19th century. The War With the Newts’ similarity to Icke’s hypothesis is not just thematic, it shares almost identical plotline, and rudiments of Icke’s animal fable which could have just been a misinterpretation of rhetorical practices of allegorical anthropomorphic political and ecological commentary under totalitarian regimes.


We’re Them: Echoes of the Legacy of H.G. Wells' Thematic Bifurcation of Science Fiction in David' Icke's Reptoid Hypothesis - Philosophical Dimension

Allegorical nature of Science Fiction with political and ecological subtexts is not the only thematic legacy of H.G. Wells present in Reptoid Hypothesis. Philosophical component of Icke’s work echoes H.G. Wells’s The Island of Doctor Moreau in its grandiose attempt to analyze human nature and the destructive role of Christianity through anthropomorphic representation. Philosophical component of Icke's theory is fully manifested in the last chapters of both The Biggest Secret and The Children of Matrix in which Icke reflects on the theme of human nature through the prism of relationship with reptiles from other stars. Icke concludes his works with paradoxical and almost misanthropic claim that the horrific lizards controlling our world and our minds are actually versions of our own selves, or our “shadows” which we have to understand and love, “If the reptilians and other astral manipulators did not exist, we would have to invent them. In fact, we probably have. They are other levels of ourselves putting ourselves in our face. They are a level of our own infinite soul, one of our realities, that we are being challenged to face and transform. If we hate them, we hate ourselves. They are our shadow, that we do not want to face, acknowledge, or admit to” (Icke, The Children of the Matrix, p.423). Whether this is Icke's admittal that he lied to his readers in the previous 800 pages or the declaration of his aspirations to obtain a prophet status, one thing remains obvious and this is the equal sign that he places between humans and reptoids, “The more we deny our shadow side, the more the consequences will be placed before us because that’s the way the game works” (Icke, The Children of the Matrix, p.424). This technique of exploring horrific, ignorant, cruel, pedophilic, blood-thirsty creatures from other planets/islands (The Beast People) and then suddenly revealing the same characteristics within “civilized” society was at the heart of Wells’ The Island of Dr. Moreau, “I could not persuade myself that the men and women I met were not another Beast People, animals half wrought into the outwards image of human souls... I look about me at my fellow-men; and I go in fear. I see faces keen and bright; others dull or dangerous: others, unsteady, insincere - none that have the calm authority of a reasonable soul...I know this is an illusion; that these seeming men and women about me are indeed men and women” (Wells, The Island of Dr. Moreau, pp. 172-173).

In Čapek’s War With The Newts, anthropomorphic representation of human follies, cruelty, soullessness, and violence is not as direct as in Well’s novel and Icke’s conspiracy; yet, Čapek points to the similarity between humans and Newts through the consistent use of simile, “Listen, sea demons [newts] don’t exist. And if they did exist, they would look like Europeans” (Čapek, p.10) “They swim in the water, and on the bottom they walk on two legs. Two legs, Shaeb, just like you or me...they have hands too, just like people” (Čapek, p.16). As Peter Swirski notes in his analysis of Čapek’s legacy in science fiction - with men acting like Newts, the reverse is even more evident, “The sapient salamanders are like us from head to each of their five toes. Smart, adaptable, and impatient to ascend the ladder of industrial civilization, the all-too-human Newts become a blank page upon which every political, cultural, and religious formation projects its prejudices and hostilities” (Swirski, p.7). Čapek does not use Wellsian dark tones to describe similarity between humans and the Newts until the very last four chapters of the novel. Instead, he uses humour in the tradition of what Maslen calls “cathartic comedies” to ease his readers’ perception of the harsh criticism of human cruel tendencies embodied by the Newts. As Peter Swirski wrote in his analysis of humours in The War With the Newts, “Čapek uses animal fable to “Makes readers convulse with laughter while cringing in self-recognition” (Swirski, p.6). One of the examples of detached, comic, and absurdist similarity of the Newts with an average person is found in the mentioning of the first publication of the discovery of an “intelligent” newt, “The newt is also able to read, although only the evening paper. It takes an interest in the same subjects as the average Englishman and reacts to them in a similar way, i.e. with fixed and generally accepted views. Its spiritual life...remains in conformity with the conceptions and opinions of our times” (Čapek, p.86).

Another philosophical dimension of Čapek’s novel is the analysis of the evolution of morale caused by the rising capitalistic culture of the late 1930s. Čapek pueposefully described Newts as commodities and property of the “Salamander Syndicate” which serves as a caricature of newly established relationship between average workers and rising global corporations, “The salamander syndicate will seek out work for millions of newts around the world. They will provide the plans and the ideas for subjugating the oceans. It will disseminate ideas of Utopia, dreams that are gigantic, projects for new coastlines...artificial islands for journeys to new lands in the middle of the oceans. That is where the future of mankind lies” (Čapek, p. 117). Peter Swrski claims that the purpose of this characteristic displacement from humans to newts is to draw an “anatomy of our civilization”, of which German militarism and expansionism discussed earlier in this project is just one of the cancerous symptoms. Yet, the main reason for this “civilizational cancer” lies within the human soul itself and its degradation under the cultivate pursuit of financial well-being. The venality with which natural resources have been exchanged for small personal benefits of people in power, or those close to power and big businesses, reveal the theme of a growing indifference to the well-being of humanity as a whole, turning people into value only when they could benefit corporations, “At least they’ll be treated decently now that they’re worth money. And we might as well use them to create a Utopia” (Čapek, p. 118). Therefore, philosophical component of The War With the Newts discloses the tendency of humanity's beastification not from the inherent default setting as in The Island of Dr. Moreau, but from the point of the growing capitalist morale, which, paradoxically, more and more turned people into "soulless salamanders" than into refined and intellectual humans of a beautiful utopia. As Maslen illustrates in her essay, “Newts are used as butts by the worst representatives of science, technology, popular entertainment, education-insensitive charity, and so on. They are used as echoes of our past, critiques of our present, and warning for our future” (Maslen, p.89) In Reptoid Hypothesis, Icke does not focus on the immorality of capitalism and corporations as much as he condemns moral “conformity” within human soul which arises as a result of the unstoppable pursuit of personal financial well-being. He argues that the worst effect of capitalism on human morality is the obedience that we give to reptoids in exchange for financial gratification. He further develops this idea into the hierarchy of evil in which people are betraying other people for the higher position thus perpetuating reptoid’s power instead of disrupting it for the sake of human future. In his text, this idea is numerously expressed in the sheep metaphor, “We laugh at sheep because sheep just follow the one in front. We humans have out-sheeped the sheep, because at least the sheep need a sheepdog to keep them in line” (Icke, The Children of Matrix, p.436). “Humanity is both the sheep and the sheepdog” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.826).

Another common theme which connects Reptoid Hypothesis, War With the Newts and The Island of Dr. Moreau is a paradoxical and destructive influence of religion, in particular, Christianity, on the formation of free individuality. Wells is one of the first science fiction novelists who used science fiction settings to demonstrate “beastification” of people through religion. This version of an allegorical philosophical tract on the nature of human soul and body caused a lot of critics to accuse Wells of misanthropy. As Snyder explains in his work Moreau and the Monstrous: Evolution, Religion, and the Beast on the Island,the central concern of the book is the exploration of how the Beast People are much the same as other men, and that in our bodies and beliefs, we are all monsters, “We all have the remnants of our evolution in us, and while the teleological argument may state that we can be “improved” until we are “perfect,” Wells suggest that this expectation (particularly as it is carried out by Christianity, which threatens hellfire for transgressions) is in itself monstrous” (Snyder, p.1). Yes, the novel turned out to be harsh and even in a certain sense cruel, yet, it is not misanthropic. The real evil in this paper is not human nature per se, but the force of authoritative Christianity embodied by the figure of Moreau.

Through vivisection and other "scientific" experiments, Dr. Moreau creates hybrid mutant creatures, giving them a semblance of a human being - a monstrous parody of reason, thought, speech, anthropo-social behavior. A living being in Moreau's perception is not God's creation, but only the result of a biological combination of physical and chemical processes, and the mind is the result of the activity of a more or less complex system of neurons. For this reason, humans are nothing more than just beasts who need cultivation and refinement. Analysis of religion and the embodied philosophy of achieving salvation through pain and suffering is the focal point of The Island of Dr. Moreau as well as of Icke’s The Children of Matrix. Moreau explores the paradigm of “Christian” civilization - the idea that a person is essentially imperfect (sinful) and needs to be improved through external influence. For Moreau, such an influence is the “Law” (the association with Judaism and its "commandments" immediately comes to mind). Violators of the Law were punished by Moreau through “pain” orchestrated at “the House of Pain” or, in extreme cases, through death. For Moreau, pain is the symptom of a bestial beginning that must be rooted out by... pain, “These animals without courage, these fear-haunted, pain-driven things, without a spark of pugnacious energy to face torment - they are no good for man-making” (Wells, The Island of Dr. Moreau, p. 128). Moreau quite transparently assumed the function of the Old Testament God as well as the priests of Western civilization appropriated this function to themselves,

His is the House of Pain,

His is the Hand that makes.

His is the Hand that wounds.

His is the Hand that heals”

(Wells, The Island of Dr. Moreau, p.114).

Icke’s analysis of Christianity in chapter 15 of The Children of Matrix and chapter 21 in The Biggest Secret reveals the same criticism of Christianity which turns people into “Beast People” through the “pain of ignorance” which was institutionalized and cultivated by Babylonian Brotherhood which founded Christianity “Christianity has been used brilliantly as the major vehicle for removing vital knowledge from the public domain….to manipulate an ignorant population...Controlling history is so important because if you manipulate how people see what we call the past, you will influence massively how they see the presence” (Icke, The biggest Secret, p.113) Like Wells’, Icke further expresses his terror regarding cruelty with which Christianity treated unbelievers, “It is not enough for them to believe in a religion, they also seek to impose that belief on everyone else or condemn them if they do not accept their religion’s view of life. There would be no religious wars if we respected each other’s right to believe whatever we choose, so long as we don’t impose it on anyone else” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 826). The philosophy of justifying infliction of pain by power figures and cultivating ignorance is embedded in any religious framework, argue Wells and Icke. As a result, instead of achieving spiritual refinement, people turn into beasts who behave not according to their will or choice but because they’re ignorant and ruled by the fear of divine punishment which might be just an illusion.

In The War With the Newts, religion is also described as a tool of authoritative governance; yet, Čapek also points to the benefits of the “turning people into beasts (newts)” with the goal of strengthening totalitarian regimes. Chapter “Wolf Meynert Writes His Oeuvre” is a literal mini version of a philosophical tract or manifest on the nature of totalitarianism inserted in the middle of the novel right before militarization of Newts against humanity. In this chapter, Čapek analyzes religion as a mechanism of erasing any distinctions between people and thus making them more controllable or Jung’s version of “mob psychology”, “Newt will not be distinct from newt by language, opinion, faith, or his requisites for life. There will be no difference among them of culture or class, merely the allocation of tasks...all will serve just one Great Newt Whole which will be God, government, employer, and spiritual leader. There will be just one nation and just one class” (Čapek, p. 235). Here, Čapek projects the same Wellsian idea of monsters within us to critique European policy of appeasement. In the militarization of Newts he tried to depict German militarization in which Nazi ideaology used the same techniqies as religion in its strategy of creating a crowd of controllable and identical Newts rather than reasonable and divers humans.


Mythical and Biblical Archetypes Within Anthropomorphic Representation of Reptiles

Despite thematic borrowings from science fiction of the 1930’s and 1940’s, the figure of the reptile in Reptoid Humanoid Hypothesis draws on even earlier mythical and biblical archetypes. If at the end of both The Children of Matrix and The Biggest Secret David Icke himself admits the fictionalization of a lizard from another planet, then this is a pure metaphor serving as a psychological technique of reconciliation with alterity, immoral aspects of the self, and personal evil urges. Just like Wells, Čapek, and Sturgeon, Icke uses anthropomorphism as a way of protecting the human psyche from realization that in their stories main heroes are the main villains. Therefore, the figure of Reptoid Humanoid is the same mosaic of biblical and mythical archetypes like Čapek’s Newts and Sturegon’s Neoterics. I hypothesize that all three writers are appealing to the occult allure surrounding the figure of a reptile with the goal of activation of what Jung called a collective unconscious which contains the archetypes of the innate form that predisposes people to perceive, experience and respond to events in a certain way. These are rather factors of perception. “People” are caught in the same actions: archetypes are objectified in culture, comprehended in myths, art, etc. Objectification of an archetype is a part of the mechanism of world perception. All three writers exploited archetypical objectification because they wanted their readers to unite and act against political corruption, wastefulness of natural resources, extinction of animals, ignorance of the masses, dangers of totalitarian oppressions. Embodying Reptoids, Newts, and Neoterics in the most trans-national biblical and mythical archetypes is the tool of pathos, manipulative, yet, awakening emotional appeal.

Satanic Snake/Echidna

Microcosmic God reveals major tropes, themes, and informational cues that trigger conspiratorial predisposition through underlying biblical structure. According to Uscinski’s study and Kahn’s collective analysis of the Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis, religious partisanship is one of the strongest conspiratorial predispositions because it targets archetypal aspects of existence that do not require formal logic, rather, the opposite, they completely disable correlation and causality. There are two elements in the Microcosmic God that point to Biblical archetypes actively participating in potential future genealogy of Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis. The first element is apparent dystopian description of the future through biblical and mythological associations with serpents as inherently evil creatures, “By this time the other laboratory had produced a warm-blooded, snake-skinned quadruped with an astonishingly rapid life cycle - a generation every eight days, a life span of about fifteen. (p.93); Like the echidna, it was oviparous and mammalian...Each female laid four eggs and lived just long enough to care for the young after they hatched. The male generally died two-three hours after mating.” (p.93) Being created by Kidder on the uninhabited island, associations with the infamous serpent in the Garden of Eden are irresistable. In addition, Sturgeon enhances the vicious allure of these creatures through association with Greek mythology. According to Doty, Ralph E. “How Myths Come About: The Case of Echidna.” Hesiod, Greek poet, in the Theogony introduces us to “fierce Echidna/half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks/and half monstrous serpent, terrible, huge, and speckled/eating raw flesh beneath earth’s concealment. Echidna’s chief function is to serve as the mother of most of the other monsters in Greek mythology. She is the mother of such infamous monsters as Chimaera (fire breathing hybrid usually depicted as a lion with the head of a goat protruding from its back, and a tail that might end with a snake’s head) and Sphinx (winged monster, also an example of a hybrid). Christian symbology and mythological allusions to the intelligent serpent that “gives birth to monsters” particularly connects Microcosmic God Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis since they activate conspiratorial predispositions through a mosaic of religious and mythological mythemes. Echidna can be also interpreted as the progenitor of Icke’s Archons (or Anunnaki), an inter-dimensional race of reptilians who have hijacked the earth, and gave birth to “Archon hybrid race” of shape-shifting anthropomorphic reptilians known as the Babylonian Brotherhood who are highly intelligent and control the world through fear and political despotism.

Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden

The second structural element of Microcosmic God that demonstrates how Biblical archetypes, Christian symbology, and ancient mythology actively participate in placing Sturgeon’s science fiction novelette as the potential “genesis” story of Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis is the structural similarity of the Kidder-Conant-Johansen triangle to Adam-Eve-Lilith triangle, suggested by Jewish sources in the middle ages. The story of Kidder and Johansen is described in almost romantic terms. Catastrophic condition of their encounter, mutual gravitation towards each other, “his meeting with young engineer Johansen had impressed him strongly...he feared for Johansen’s life” p.108), and remaining on the island together is highly homoerotic for 1941 novella. Yet, this homoeroticism might have more hidden roots in the Bible and Babylonian demonology. There are only three characters that are given attention in this story: Kidder, Conant, and young engineer Johansen. The story begins with the statement that this story is about two men, Kidder and Johansen, “a man who had too much power and a man, who took too much”; “But from the beginning of creation, God made them male and female” (Mark 10:6) The two of them could not exist without each other and they complemented each other like yin and yang. Kidder was Conant’s brain, while Conant was Kidder’s PR representative.The island in the story can be interpreted as a version of the Garden of Eden, while the transmitter became the symbolic representation of the tree of knowledge or a sin never to be experienced. According to Hittites, Egyptians, and Israelites’ myths, half-woman, half-serpent Lilith and Adam produced a race of evil creatures and left the Garden of Eden because of her bold struggle for independence from Adam. In Microcosmic God, the union of Conant’s business skills and Kidder's bottomless intellect spawned a new race of Neoterics, or warm-blooded, snake-skinned quadruped which is remarkably similar to a “race of evil creatures” bore by half-serpent Lilith in Israelites’ myths. Lilith’s disobedience and rebellion against Adam is also evident in Conant’s desire for independence from Kidder, But I mean to go ahead on this job, and a small thing like your life can’t stand in my way” (p.103). Conant, therefore, is a version of Lilith, or the first wife of Adam (according to Israelites’ myths of the middle ages), while Johansen is his true partner, Eve, who is also a “thorough scientist”, just like Kidder or from “Adam’s rib”.

Similarly, Icke begins his first book on Reptoid Hypothesis, The Biggest Secret, with the same imitation of the Garden of Eden and two progenitors of humanity. Location “for the beginning of Everything became a planet from forth dimension, and Kidder/Johansen (Adam/Eve) became Enki/Ninharsag reptiles, “Two people involved in the creation of the slave race. They were chief scientist called Enki, Lord of the Eart (Ki=Earth) and Ninharsag, also known as Ninti (Lady Life) because of her expertise in medicine. She was later referred as Mammi” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 28) Even though there was no Lilith figure in Icke’s conspiracy, drawing upon Biblical archetypes in Icke’s work is undeniable because Icke’s genesis of humanity uses the same archetypal formula found in all major religions with alternative terminology.

Moloch

The final Biblical archetype which was used to predispose people to perceive, experience and respond to Reptoids in a particularly emotional manner was a child-devouring ancient Simitic deity also mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, Moloch. The worship of Moloch was distinguished by the sacrifice of children through a burnt offering. The Hebrew Bible forbids, on pain of death, giving children to the service of Moloch (Leviticus Lev. 18:21; Lev. 20: 2). The Bible speaks about "leading children through the fire" (Deut. 18: 9, 10) along with fortune-telling, witchcraft and other "abominations" of paganism. In a later Hebrew interpretation, "being led through the fire" also means the pagan initiation of children, and the "sin of Moloch" is the conversion of children to paganism or the birth of a pagan. Moloch appears as one of the most powerful Reptoids in The Biggest Secret, “The Armoured lizard called Moloch Horridus which also has a dragon-like appearance. Moloch is an ancient deity to which children were sacrificed thousands of years ago and still are today in the vast Satanic ritual network” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.53). In The War With the Newts, Moloch appears as the Newts’ “God” version, “Most of the newts themselves, somewhat later on, adopted a different faith, although it is not known how they came to it; this was the worship of Moloch, whom they imagined as an enormous newt with a human head...However, no more details about this cult or its rituals were ever learned - despite their reputation for exceptional cruelty and secrecy - because they took place under water” (Čapek, p. 162). I hypothesise that in both cases, Moloch was used as a symbol of the lost future for our children. Hiding behind a façade of conformity in the face of the Third Reich's hysterical calls for Lebensraum (Čapek) or intellectual degradation of civilization (Icke) is the same act as the voluntarily burning of our own children as a sacrifice to an illusory pagan deity.

Conclusion

If we pull back the curtains of the hysterical and paranoid reputation inherent in conspiracy theories, we can discover an interesting mosaic of archetypes, dogmatism, allegories, as well as thematic and genre borrowings. Microcosmic God and The War with the Newts demonstrate how Reptoid Hypothesis could have been informed by 1930’s and 1940’s science fiction texts which themselves drew upon the thematic legacy of H.G.Wells. Considerable attention has been paid to the analysis of philosophical interpretation of the human nature, political and ecological subtext, as well as the difficulty of reconciliation with personal evil urges.

Reptoid Conspiracy is nothing more than a dogmatic attempt to rationalize the chaos, fragmentation, and absurdity of reality through anthropomorphic objectification of deeply-rooted Biblical and mythical archetypes embodied by Reptoid Humanoids. Reptoid Hypothesis is an example of of what authors of Pseudoscience: The Conspiracy Against

Science call a “quest for certitude” and “ontological comfort” which are characterized by extracting human monstrosity and embodying it by some form of anthropomorphic monster. Yet, this polarization does not secure an enduring self-knowledge and promotes phobia, hostility, and paranoia of creatures who may only exist in imagination.

We’re the Newts, the Martians, the sea demons, the Beast People, the Annunaki. We created Moloch, Third Reich, and ecological catastrophes. We are the villains of our own stories, but we are not deprived of a hope to become heroes.




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