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We’re Them

Analysis of 1930’s and 1940’s Science Fiction Themes and Mythical Archetypes in the Deconstruction of David Icke’s Reptoid Humanoid Hypothesis

“I suppose everything in existence takes its colour from the average hue of our surroundings.”

H.G. Wells, The Island of Doctor Moreau

One of the main leitmotifs of Carl J. Jung’s The Undiscovered Self is the inevitable disorientation of a person in the labyrinth of self-identification. Throughout his essays, Jung insists that endowing with human qualities of creatures not related to the branch of human evolution with the goal of “detached” comparison will liberate from the burden of existential maze and will offer an escapist catharsis of enduring self-knowledge, “Man is an enigma to himself...The possibility of comparison and hence of self-knowledge would arise only if he could establish relations with quasi-human mammals inhabiting other stars (Jung, p.25). Although any statement about self-knowledge is highly subjective, Jung’s ideas of anthropomorphism and bifurcation of reality into “us” and “them” help to conceptualize the phenomenon of popularity of the bulk of conspiracy theories today. Every theory from the New World Order, Freemasonry and Illuminati to 9/11, Biden and Ukraine, and COVID-19 as the Mark of the Beast reveal the same underlying quest for certitude and offers the same ontological security as a blissful harbor at the end of a grueling marathon of understanding oneself and one's role in an endlessly fragmented, at times absurd, and unstable world.

Conspiracy theories hold pseudoscientific façade which can be thoroughly deconstructed, analyzed, and prevented from mass distribution through academic peer review; yet, such profesional conspiracy theorists like David Icke avoid scientific scrutinization of the content quality through self-publication which has already translated into $10 million net worth from loyal audience, global popularity, translation into 11 languages, and persona non grata status on all social media platforms. Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis is one of the top most popular contemporary conspiracies functioning as a unique consolidation of all conspiracy theories with unlimited explanatory power. Apparent financial motifs embedded in pseudoscientific framework of this hypothesis dictate the need to critically examine, deconstruct, and historicize this conspiracy theory with the goal of illuminating potentially overlooked thematic, semantic, and semiotic missing links within all-accounting and all-inclusive Icke’s panacea for existential paralysis. Although the Reptilian Hypothesis was clearly informed by the alien craze and American discourses of political mistrust and paranoia shaped during the Cold War, as suggested by such critics as Tyson E. Lewis and Richard Kahn, it also borrows from themes and tropes that had appeared extensively in the earlier history of science fiction, especially during the 1930s and 1940s. Such texts as 1936 satirical science fiction novel by Karel Čapek War with the Newts and 1941 science fiction novelette Microcosmic God by Theodore Sturgeon epitomize the thematic legacy of H.G. Wells of enriching science fiction with political/ecological allegories and philosophical motifs as well as integration of a longer genealogy of mythical and Biblical archetypes which are easily identifiable within David Icke’s 1998 The Biggest Secret and 2001 The Children of Matrix. Moreover, the political dimensions of the Reptilian Hypothesis reflect concerns about the development of totalitarianism that have been examined within the genre of science fiction from its earliest days.

The deconstruction of conspiracy theories is increasingly resonating with academia as it provides a platform for the study of the anatomy of logical inconsistencies, neuro-linguistic programming, and the general trajectory of global mass culture. Since the 9/11 infamous attack, 2020 became the pinnacle of the number of publications on the topic of analyzing conspiracies as well as new “upgraded” versions of conspiracy theories revolving around a new inspirational goddess - COVID-19 (2020 Number Games: 9/11 to Coronavirus by Zachary Hubbard is one of many emerging competitors to David Icke in the field of professional literary conspiracism). One of the common themes analyzed by such works as Conspiracy Theories and the People Who Believe in Them by professor at the University of Miami's Political Science department, Joseph Uscinski, and The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories by Dr. Jan-Willem Van Prooijen, professor at the department of Applied Psychology of VU Amsterdam, is the influence of so-called “contactee” literature which sprang up following an alleged crash of a UFO craft in Roswell, New Mexico in 1947. As Tyson Lewis and Richard Khan argue in their collective analysis “The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs”, Icke’s theory is part of a larger alien conspiracy culture. Lewis and Khan further assert that conspiratorial framework was embedded in the contactee literature because, due to the historical closeness of the UFO crash with the beginning of the Cold War, contactee literature obtained common metaphorical cultural reading of this invasion as the threat of Communist invasion. By the 1970s, with the Watergate Scandal and Vietnam War, the public became paranoid that governments have their secret interests, and aliens in the contactee literature proportionately reflected secrecy and harmful intentions of the government. Numerous 1980’s and 1990's television shows such as Star Trek, Outer Limits, and The Twilight Zone, and films such as Star Wars, Alien, and Close Encounters of the Third Kind all helped “to cement the connection between aliens, politics, and entertainment in the popular imagination of the 1960’s and 1970’s, while the 1980’s continued the alien craze with the creation of a new set of narratives that began to combine alien themes with conspiratorial ideas” (Tyson, Khan, p. 46). Even though all academic attempts to deconstruct the genealogy of David Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis (as well as any conspiracy theory involving extraterrestrial creatures as the puppet masters of humanity) inevitably lead researchers to the alien craze of the 1950’s-1990’s in the popular imagination, Icke’s Reptilian Hypothesis was clearly informed by science fiction themes and allegorical techniques which are evident in satirical science fiction novels and novelettes as early as the 1930s and 1940s.

Conspiracy Theory as a Genre Mutation of Science Fiction Through the Lens of Historical Genre Theory

The influence of the 1950’s-1990’s US alien craze and Cold War-era paranoia motifs should not be downplayed in the analysis of David Icke’s The Biggest Secret and The Children of Matrix; yet, the significance of the Cold-War-inflected themes around the alien conspiracies does not explain the presence of almost identical plotlines found in the 1930’s and 1940’s science fiction texts before the alleged UFO crash. The theme of serpent/lizard/snake-looking creatures with enormous intellectual abilities who were either artificially created by scientists or evolved from amphibians, Salamandroideas, and then surpassed and turned mankind into a secondary animal kingdom intended to be slaves of reptilians was, in fact, already fully developed earlier in the history of science fiction. 1936 satirical science fiction novel War With the Newts by Czech author Karel Čapek and 1941 science fiction novelette Microcosmic God by Theodore Sturgeon can be read as some of the earliest progenitors of Icke’s hypothesis that humans are in fact the slave race of reptilian aliens called Annunaki. However, in the case of Čapek’s satirical sf novel, the antagonistic role of Annunaki was presented in the form of Newts, and Sturgeon’s prototypical representation of Annunaki were reptilian/snake-looking creatures called Neoterics.

The longer history of the central reptilian plotline of Icke must be taken into account to understand some of the structures of meaning and signifying elements that constitute the framework of the Reptilian Hypothesis. Although Lewis and Khan mentioned that Reptoid Hypothesis had “pop-cultural sci-fi appeal”, they did not progress in this line of analysis, focusing instead on the utopian and dystopian representational motifs of Reptoid Hypothesis (Tyson, Khan, p. 56). It seems counterintuitive to suggest that conspiracy theories can be judged using the same merits as science fiction; yet, the genre mutation is apparently evident in the thematic transformation from Čapek’s and Sturgeon’s science fiction texts to David Icke’s best-selling conspiracy theory in the world. How can this genre mutation be rationalized?

All genres and artistic/intellectual movements are geared toward a mini revolution, a cut in the historical processes. In the XX century, Futurism breaks with Symbolism; Vorticism breaks with Futurism; Dadaism breaks with everything that came before; Surrealism breaks with Dadaism and so the kaleidoscope of mutation of genres and intellectual movements continues to this day. Despite the prominent component of revolutionary rupture, genres mutate, evolve, shape each other, intertwine, and incestually give birth to new, unique genres which, yet, have certain elements of their progenitors. Therefore, the mutation of the genre of Science Fiction and its forming place in the genealogy of modern conspiracy theories, particularly, Reptilian Humanoid Hypothesis is not counterintuitive. This can be further proved through the lens of the extended historical genre theory proposed by John Rieder. In “On Defining SF, or Not: Genre Theory, SF, and History”, John Rieder explains that, unlike formal general theory, historical genre theory undermines any fixed definition of science fiction. He begins with a paradigm shift that happened in genre theory between 1984 and 1991 initiated by Rick Altman’s essay “A Semantic/Syntactic Approach to Film Genre” and Ralph Cohen and their assertion that the act of “definition” can not ever be adequate to the notion of genre as historical process. Further, Rieder incorporates quotes from Paul Kincaid’s 2003 essay “On the Origin of Genre”, Damon Knight’s interviews, Mark Bould and Sherryl Vint “There is No Such Thing as Science Fiction” to highlight his argument that genres, in general, are fluid and tenuous and science fiction is not an exception. Historical genre theory is different from the formal genre theory (that asserts that similar situations generate typified responses called genres), but looks at genres as historical processes. According to this approach, definitions and classifications may be useful points of departure for critical and rhetorical analysis, but, historical genre theory comprehends what science fiction meant and currently means through historical and comparative narrative rather than formal description.

In addition, John Rieder makes five propositions about sf, each of which could also be re-formulated as a thesis about genre in order to summarize the current paradigm of genre theory. “The five propositions are: 1) science fiction is historical and mutable; 2) science fiction has no essence, no single unifying characteristic, and no point of origin; 3) science fiction is not a set of texts, but rather a way of using texts and of drawing relationships among them; 4) science fiction’s identity is a differentially articulated position in an historical and mutable field of genres; 5) attribution of the identity of science fiction to a text constitutes an active intervention in its distribution and reception” (Rieder, p. 193) One of the goals of this project is to illustrate Rieder’s five propositions about science fiction to demonstrate fluidity and mutability of science fiction as a genre as well as to show how Reptoid Hypothesis echoes H.G. Wells’ thematic bifurcation of science fiction into political/ecological allegory and philosophical tract on human nature on the example of Microcosmic God and The War With the Newts against the backdrop of H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Island of Doctor Moreau.

When John Rieder claims that science fiction is mutable and historical, he means that genres are richer and more complex within parameters that are social and historical, rather than literary. In other words, texts should use history to read texts and texts to read history. Difficulty of defining science fiction is, therefore, explained by the second proposition that science fiction has no single unifying characteristic and no point of origin. According to historical genre theory, then, genres can be correlated based on similar “time and place” circumstances. This theory expands the boundaries of the science fiction genre and hints that science fiction may merge with the most unusual genres of the same historical period and continue to be called science fiction. One parallel genre that reached the zenith of popularity in the XX century along with science fiction (both golden age and new wave) was conspiracy fiction. The Reptoid Hypothesis might, then, be viewed as the product of such genre symbios.

Thematic Borrowing in Reptoid Hypothesis: Symbiosis of Conspiracy Fiction and Science Fiction in Microcosmic God

1941 science fiction novelette Microcosmic God by Theodore Sturgeon is constructed in the best traditions of conspiracy fiction, yet, belongs to the golden age of science fiction. Microcosmic God tells a story remarkably similar to David Icke's first five chapters of The Biggest Secret - civilizational success is controlled by one sociopathic scientist who creates reptilian-looking intellectually advanced race on the remote island, while America’s economy and, at the same time, the whole world’s economy, is in the hands of a greedy banker with megalomania who, in turn, is dependant on the “brains” of the sociopathic scientist from the remote island. In the case of Icke, the sociopathic scientist on the remote island is the head of an extraterrestrial lizard-looking race called Annunaki from a remote planet called Nibiru and the “greedy banker” is “Babylonian Brotherhood”, or “Illuminati” who control the world's economy and media through secret masonic connections between world politicians. Remarkably, Icke even calls the head of Annunaki “chief scientist”, “two people involved in the creation of the slave race were the chief scientist called Enki” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.28).

There are two textual episodes within Microcosmic God that directly imitate foundational themes from conspiracy fiction. The first one mentions the easily-manipulated American Government by secret forces, “All he [secret force] wants is your agreement to carry out his [secret force] orders; to appoint the [secret force] cabinet members he chooses, to throw your influence in any way he [secret force] dictates. The public-Congress-anyone else-need never know anything about it” (Sturgeon, p.107) The second episode portrays media as the medium of spreading and perpetuating secret control over the naive and unaware population: “There Is a commercial radio program on Station RPRS. You will cause the announcer, after his station identification, to say ‘’Agreed” (Sturgeon, p.107). Whie Theodore Sturgeon presents such matters as hypothetical and inherently fictional narratives, David Icke converts the same two classic themes of conspiracy fiction into the absolute truth. In the first five chapters of The Biggest Secret and the first ten chapters of The Children of Matrix, Icke voices claims that American Government as well as any government of any country are easily-manipulated by the the will of the secret extraterrestrial lizards, “Aryan lizards have created a secret society known as the Freemasons or Illuminati. The Illuminati are the grand historical puppet masters, presiding over all human activities through indirect channels of control (media, Internet) (Tyson, Khan, p. 52); “The British House of Windsor is one of them, so are the Rothschilds, the European royalty and aristocracy, the Rockefellers, and he rest of the so-called Eastern Establishment of the United States which produces the American Presidents” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.19). Potentially due to the fact that in 1998, when Icke wrote and self-published his text, Internet already existed, and the theme of “digital mind control”, or Internet, was as powerful as the theme of the radio in 1940’s Sturgeon’s novelette, “In the XXI century the reptoids have gone digital. inventing and deploying new information technologies that will further suppress the truth, expand the scope of surveillance, and restrict individual freedoms… illuminati are very interested in mind control. The media and the Internet are two powerful tools that they have developed to achieve mind control over the general populace” (Tyson, Khan, p. 53). These two passages from Sturgeon and Icke demonstrate crucial aspects of not only the presence of conspiracy fiction fundamental themes within science fiction, but also reveal what author of a psychological study “What Drives Conspiratorial Beliefs?”, Uscinski, calls “psychological triggers of conspiratorial predisposition” or “informational cues”. Lowering levels of trust in the government and depicting media as inherently corrupt are two informational cues that activate psychological conspiratorial predisposition.

All existing conspiracy theories today are constructed on these two fundamental informational cues which are apparent in any conspiracy fiction novel with various layers of semantic complexities. For instance, boh The Ministry of Fear by Graham Green published in 1943 and Nightmare Town by Dashiell Hammett published in 1948 explore the same themes but without the scientifically grandiose setting presented in Microcosmic God. In other words, according to Rieder’s historical genre theory and study by Uscinski, symbiosis of science fiction and conspiracy fiction in Microcosmic God by Theodore Sturgeon exploits semantic possibilities of the language to potentially construct a new genre, possibly, a genesis of the new Reptoid Humanoid Hypothesis. Further research into the topic of symbiosis of sf and cf, conducted by Lewis, Tyson, and Richard Kahn in their collective work, “The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs in David Icke's Alien Conspiracy Theory” proves that symbiosis of conspiracy fiction, science fiction, and “alien craze” of the XX century mutated into David Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis. Reptoid Hypothesis, or an idea that alien lizards conspiratorially control the earth is “quintessentially dystopian literature” which voices accumulated scepticism and distrust in the government and capitalism. (Kahn, p.50) According to their research, the greatest manifestation of the “intercourse” of science fiction and conspiracy fiction, or the moment that proves Rieder’s proposition that science fiction is mutable and science fiction’s identity is a differentially articulated position in an historical and mutable field of genres is V (1983 miniseries) written and directed by Kenneth Johnson and 1985 “dark” science fiction novella “Enemy Mine” written by Barry B. Longyear. In “Enemy Mine”, science fiction, conspiracy fiction, and rudiments of Reptoid Hypothesis become one and indivisible whole, while serpents begin to be recognized in mass culture as intellectually-advanced creatures rather than biblical symbol of evil. Microcosmic God proves that the holy trinity of sf, cf, and advanced reptile civilization rhetoric appears earlier than mid 80’s. Neoterics, or the artificially created civilization in Microcosmic God are “snake-skinned” quadrupeds that appear much earlier, originally published in 1941 and then received Nebula Award in 1970 coinciding with the “zenith” of conspiracy fiction in the U.S.

Echoes of the Legacy of H.G. Wells' Thematic Bifurcation of Science Fiction in David' Icke's Reptoid Hypothesis - Political and Ecological Dimensions

One of the characterizing attributes of Reptoid Hypothesis is its political commentary. As Tyson Lewis and Richard Khan observed in their collective analysis of dystopian motifs in Reptoid Hypothesis, “much of Icke’s work provides historical and political critique that is at once trenchant political analysis mixed with what reads like an over-the-top satire in the tradition of Jonathan Swift (Tyson, Khan, p. 52). Indeed, Reptoid Hypothesis seems to have an unlimited explanatory potential to rationalize everything on the global political arena from describing how allien reptiles control Eastern Establishment of the United States which produces the American Presidents with “reptilian agenda” to Hitler as one of the illegitimate sons of Rothschild who was financed by Illuminati to initiate Holocaust and, thus, feed, Annunaki with “negative” energy of suffering, pain, and deprivation. Both The Biggest Secret and The Children of Matrix are inherently political texts which integrate science fiction themes, plotlines, and tropes. The following section will attempt to illuminate the political and ecological dimensions within The War with the Newts, specifically, various techniques of political allegories inserted into science fiction settings which were consciously or unconsciously absorbed by Reptoid Hypothesis.

The broad history of science fiction has continued to animate and engage with political questions. The nature of science fiction as a generic form uses scientific and technological speculation to comment, critique, or reflect upon current conditions, which often means that science fiction is inherently a political genre. As Darko Suvin wrote in “Not Only but Also: Reflections of Cognition and Ideology in Science Fiction and SF Criticism”, science fiction “situates itself within this general alternative of liberation vs. bodage, self-management vs. class alienation...where the novelty is historically determine” (Suvin, pp.168-169). Thus, the understanding of SF - constituted by history and evaluated in history - is doubly impossible without a sense of history and its possibilities. In other words, literary production of science fiction can not be divorced from social meanings and sociopolitical judgements. H.G. Wells might be called one of the founding fathers of integrating political subtext into science fiction through the prism of scientific discoveries/scientific actions and their potential (negative) impacts on the future of humanity. Similarly to Icke’s hypothesis, War of the Worlds describes the invasion of aliens (Martians) on Earth and is one of the first descriptions of such a conflict in world literature. Many contemporary readers viewed Well’s novel as an extended political allegory, equating Martians’ ambitions to take over the world with changes in world geopolitics at the beginning of XX century, the unification and militarization of Germany, and severe critique of British colonialism. In the opening of the novel, Wells directly equates cruelty of the Martians with British cruelty towards Tasmanians and natural world,

“And before we judge of them too harshly we must remember what

ruthless and utter destruction our own species has wrought, not only

upon animals...but upon its inferior races. The Tasmanians, in spite

of the human likeness, were entirely swept out of existence in a war extermination waged by European immigrants, in the space of fifty

years. Are we such apostles of mercy as to complain if the Martians

warred in the same spirit?” (Wells, War of the Worlds, p.4)

In the meantime, War of the Worlds became a time bomb under the imperial consciousness of the British. For it does not matter at all who occupies London: the Martians or the Kaiser's troops. Remarkably, the first chapter of Icke’s The Biggest Secret is titled “The Martians have landed?” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p.18). It should also be noted that at the end of the XIX century, for the first time in history, people began to notice the consequences of a destructive effect on the biosphere and ecology: by 1898, the population of the American bison was almost completely exterminated by humans. This ecological and biospheric commentary serves as the dystopian predictions about the future of mankind: just like the Martians, humans will be forced to leave their planet as it is not fit for life, “Its air is much more attenuated than ours, its oceans have shrunk until they cover but a third of its surface...that last stage of exhaustion, which to us is still incredibly remote, has become a present-day problem for the inhabitants of Mars” (Wells, The War of the Worlds, p.4) These sentiments are also reflected in the novel and translated into Icke’s idea that Annunaki needed our natural resources because they lacked their own on their planet of Nibiru. As Icke explains in The Biggest Secret, “Annunaki came to the Earth an estimated 450,000 years ago to mine gold in what is now Africa...The gold mined by the Annunaki was shipped back to their home planet from base in the Middle East...there was a rebellion by the miners and the Annunaki royal elite decided to create a new slave race to do the work” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 26) Although Icke’s hypothesis is not a political and ecological allegory per se, yet it uses the same techniques of attributing human characteristics of destruction to alien entities as a way of demonstrating global political trajectory.

Following Well’s traditions, both War With the Newts and Microcosmic God incorporate geopolitical and ecological allegory into their narratives. While War With the Newts introduces us to the technique of satirical “aesopian language” as the rhetorical mode of incorporating political allegory into science fiction setting, Microcosmic God reveals the theme of secret intentions behind political operations. In fact, Karl Čapek’s title War with the Newts is a direct allusion to H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds. Peter Swirski, in his essay "Karel Čapek and the Politics of Memory", claims that the literary conversation with Wells stretches from Čapek’s early stories down to War with the Newts, “With the Englishman openly cited in the novel as an authority on utopias/dystopias, with the menace of heat rays bewailed in a hysterical English headline, with familiar scenes of invasion-spawned anarchy, The War of the Worlds is never far from the attentive reader’s mind” (Swirski, p.11). The plot opens with the discovery of a sapient lizard species who soon become efficient pearl divers. The operation expands, the Newts are shipped around the world, and soon they capture the attention of G. H. Bondy, captain of world industry, who creates the Salamander Syndicate, paving the way for the industrial, mass-scale use of this intelligent and by now articulate species. “Hunted, killed, enslaved, exhibited in circuses, bred in captivity, tortured, abused, preyed upon, and trained for war, they reenact Capek's condensed version of an everyday in the life of our civilization” (Swirski, p.6). As their exploitation intensifies according to the iron logic of twentieth-century slash-and-burn capitalism, the Newts become essential grease for the machinery of global trade and progress. Yet, eventually, they unite and outnumber the human population. They do not rebel against the Salamander Syndicate but, instead, develop a conspiracy against human race, accumulate enough weapons, iron, chemicals, and tools to destroy human population as the unnecessary appendages to continents. They flood continent after continent by underground explosions to expand the water space for the rapidly growing population of salamanders, leaving a small population of people only as slaves of salamanders with the goal of delivering natural resources that newts cannot get under water.

War with the Newts is an all-encompassing allegory aimed to uncover geopolitical and social “diseases” of the late 1930’s: nationalism, capitalism, expansionism, the rise of German fascism, bolshevism, communism, colonialism, imperialism, militarism, wasteful use of natural resources, and racism, “In the process, with prognostic audacity that proved all too accurate, War with the Newts gives us a terrifying foretaste--or for us, descendants of the Second World War, a sickening aftertaste--of Nazism” (Swirski, p.6). In “Proper Words in Proper Places: The Challenge of Čapek's ‘War with the Newts.’”, Elizabeth Maslen argues that the main rhetorical trope that Čapek uses to deliver his pessimistic (and, alas, accurate) consequences of the rise of Nazism in Germany and Europe's ill-bred policy of appeasement to his audience was through the usage of Aesopian language, or “teasingly screened political “identifications” (Maslen, p.88). Merriam Webster dictionary defines Aesopian language as the cryptic or ambiguous language characterized by the use of anthropomorphism to uncover political subtext and human follies which authors used in subversive material, often to avoid censorship. This use originated in Russia with a technical term ezopovski, the Russian version of the term used extensively by sovietologists. In the 20th century, Aesopian - which had previously meant simply "characteristic of Aesop or his fables" - took on an extended political meaning and was borrowed by many writers to write on the most pressing political issues. Today, Aesopian language occasionally means "having hidden meaning" without any implications of subversive political meaning or avoidance of censorship. Maslen further argues that Čapek was influenced by Saltykov-Schedrin, 19th-century Russian satirist who “invented” aesopian language with strong political subtext, “Lenin used Aesopian language under the Tsars: Zamyatin used it first under the Tsars and later under the Bolsheviks” (Maslen, p.88). In 1936, when War with the Newts was written and published, this technique was widely used “under totalitarian regimes when censorship is particularly strict” (Maslen, p.88). The Chief Salamander who, eventually, wipes out humanity “in stages'' is reminiscent of Adolf Hitler, “At the end of the book Chief Salamander turns out to be a man, Andreas Schultze. Like Hitler, he is an ex-First World War NCO who whips the Newts into conquistadorial frenzy while being showered by world powers with arms, munitions, and credit” (Swirski, p.7). In fact, Aesopian language and its usage of the newts to embody rising fascism in Germany was one of the reasons why Swedish committee rejected Čapek's novel for the reasons of “political incorrectness”even though War With the Newts was nominated and highly praised by critics.

Whether consciously or unconsciously, David Icke absorbed the surface appearance of the animal fable embedded in Aesopian language in both The Biggest Secret and The Children of the Matrix, particularly, in his attempts to explain horrific deeds of Nazi Germany and ratiolalize popularity of Hitler through calling him a reptilian extraterrestrial creature supported by far more intelligent creature from a remote planet. In fact, attempts of rationalizing the rise of Hitler and his party in Germany as well as his maniac idea of racial supremacy is one the focal points of Icke’s Reptoid Hypothesis. He dedicates an entire chapter to Hitler in both The Biggest Secret and The Children of Matrix analyzing German obscurantism of the late 1930’ in more than 200 pages, “So many of the strands of history related in this book can be found in the beliefs of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis...the Nazi party was the creation of a network of secret societies which had access to the underground stream of knowledge” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 846). However, unlike Čapek, who used Chief Salamander as an allegorical anthropomorphic representation of Hitler, Icke directly calls him a lizard carrying a secret “bloodline”, “The Rotschilds and the Illuminati produce many offspring out of wedlock in their secret breeding programmes and these children are brought up under other names with other parents...Hitler too would have produced unofficial children to maintain his strand of reptilian bloodline and there will obviously be people of his bloodline alive today” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 847). Even more interesting is the description of Icke’s “Super hybrids”, or extraterrestrial slave masters, hybrid of Annunaki and another reptilian alien race called “Nordics” because of their blond hair and blue eyes. These reptilians are none other than the Aryans, “top-down control, emotionless, ‘cold-blooded attitudes”, an obsession with ritualistic behavior” (Icke, The Biggest Secret, p. 36). Even in this description, we see the reflection of Čapek's parallels with Nazi Germany, satirically described as the Northern Newt or “Baltic” Newts using Aesopian language. Capek’s Newts are branded with the generic name Andrias Scheuchzeri, derived from the false premise of the scientist Scheuchzer, who thought a Newt skeleton was protoman. (Maslen, p.90). Thanks to Scheuchzer’s Germanic origin, that fallacious name is enough to initiate the cult of the Nordic Newt as the original master-race,

“Baltic German scientist, Dr. Hans Thuring, found that the

Baltic Newt had certain distinctive physical features - it was

somewhat lighter in colour, it walked on two legs, and its carnial

index indicated a skull that was longer and narrower than other

newts. This variety was given the name Northern Newt or Noble